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Monday, May 4, 2009

Wednesday, February 25, 2009


Headache is one of the most common symptoms reported. in medical practice. Every individual gets it at some time during life. From adults to old age, everybody gets it. Nowadays children are also getting headache. Let us try to know about it in detail.

Types of headache

1) Migraine –
This is a very severe headache. It may or may not be preceded by ‘Aura”
Aura means –may see some figures,etc which indicate that he is going to get an attack.
It is called as “hemicranial headache’i.e. half-sided headache. It may be associated with vomiting, giddiness. After vomiting, patient may feel better. It is caused by changes in dimensions blood vessels in the brain.
Rx options-
1) NSAID-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – for milder pain
2) ergot alkaloids- for acute attacks
3) calcium channel blockers like flunarizine- for prophylaxis of acute attacks

2) Headache due to serious conditions like brain tumors-

3) Headache due to eye problems- can be due to
1) uncorrected refractive errors
2) glaucoma especially acute attacks
3) keratitis
4) excessive eye strain

4) Tension ,Mental stress
5)Serious body diseases – septicemia, encephalitis, meningitis, vasculitis –giant cell or temporal arteritis
6) ENT conditions- deviated nasal septum , sinusitis, cold

Management of headache

Talking to the patient, taking detail history, asking about causes of stress is important part of management.
. Referral to physician , ENT specialist is required depending on the case.
Routine tests like hemoglobin, blood cell counts,urine exam, check up for refractive errors are needed. In some cases CT scan brain is required. Headache which is long lasting, severe & not relieved by analgesics needs investigations.

Analgesics like- paracetamol, combiflam may help in relieving symptoms but they don’t cure the basic cause.

Headache Migraine causes Treatment

Friday, January 30, 2009

Dry Eye & Lubricant Eye Drops

Lubricant Eye Drops available in the market are -

1. Lubrex
2. Tears plus
3. Glytears
4. Dudrops
5. Refresh Tears
6. Refresh Liquigel

Dry Eye & Lubricant Eye Drops

Dry Eye- It is more common in
. Ladies after menopause
. In computer users

.Lubricant Eye Drops available in the market are -

1. Lubrex
2. Tears plus
3. Glytears
4. Dudrops

Read more -
computer and eyes

Sunday, December 7, 2008

Causes of eye fatigue (tiredness) & pain

Asthenopic symptoms in the eye are responsible the morbidity in CVS. Proper rest to the eye and its muscles is recommended to relieve the associated eye strain. A routinely recommended approach is to blink the eyes frequently (this helps replenish the tear film) and to look out the window to a distance object or to the sky—doing so provides rest to the ciliary muscles. One of the catch phrases is the "20-20-20 rule": every 20 minutes, focus the eyes on an object 20 feet (6 meters) away for 20 seconds. This basically gives a convenient distance and timeframe for a person to follow the advice from the ophthalmologist. Otherwise, the patient is advised to close his/her eyes (which has a similar effect) for 20 seconds, at least every half hour.

Decreased focusing capability is mitigated by wearing a small plus-powered (+1.00 to +1.50) over-the-counter pair of eyeglasses. Wearing these helps such patients regain their ability to focus on near objects. People who are engaged in other occupations—such as tailors engaged in embroidery—can experience similar symptoms and can be helped by these glasses

Saturday, October 11, 2008

How To Have Beautiful Eyes- Take care of eyes

1. Always read in adequate light.

2. Don't read in a running vehicle.

Do not wear very old contact lenses (CL) which have deposits.These can damage cornea.Clean the deposits with proper solution or send to company.Do not wear torn lenses
Do not swim with CL on.Do not use tap water to clean CL.Chances of acanthamoeba corneal infection & ulcer are very high
Various varieties are available nowadays like
1) disposable CL-very good as far as safety is concerned but costly
2) extended wear CL- better choice.Safe also & less costly as compared to disposable

Remove CL before going to bed.When one gets conjunctivitis,one is not supposed to use CL.CL users can develop giant papillae which is due to allergy
Do not use saliva,any other home made solutions to clean CL.
Developments in CL has brought a lot of changes in Ophthalmology.Young patients who undergo cataract surgery due to various reasons like congenital cataract,injury,etc are initially asked to use CL before intraocular lens implantation.
Nowadays cosmetic CL are available.These are available in different colors to suit a person's iris color.These are available in various shades of brown,blue,gray colors.Models & actress can use such CL.

Long term use can lead to 

1) giant papillary conjunctivitis-eye becomes red,itchy.Watering may occur.This is more likely to happen with soft CL use.In such situations,one has to discontinue CL use for some time & use anti-allergic drops.Also clean the deposits over CL

2) Corneal vascularisation- can develop
Don't use eye drops while using CL.Drops with harmful preservatives are not allowed.A few selected eye drops are there which can be used while CL are on.

3) CL use for many years may cause decrease in number of corneal endothelial cells

Tears are essential for good eye health.
What happens in dry eye syndrome: the tears have a chemical composition that causes them to evaporate too quickly
Keep a proper distance from computer screen while working.

Long-term contact lens wear is another cause for dryness
Eyelid disease, such as blepharitis can cause dryness. In blepharitis,small white particles are seen on lid margins.Use of antibacterial shampoo for lid hygiene is important.

nutritional supplements

Salmon is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, which may reduce your risk for dry eyes. Sardine, herring and cod liver oils are even better, or try a supplement
If cause is environmental, always wear sunglasses when outdoors. This reduces exposure to sun, wind and dust.
Glasses that has a shield at the sides, to keep wind and dust from getting to your eyes at the top, bottom and sides are available .
Indoors, an air cleaner can filter out dust and other particles from the air, while a humidifier adds moisture to air that's too dry because of air conditioning or heating. Air conditioning leads to dryness of eyes
Some eye drops contain preservatives which are harmful.If medications are causing dry eyes, discontinuing the drug generally resolves the problem
. Read more-